I Knew Khomeini documentary discussion

Watch this YouTube documentary and write 4 pages following these 4 steps:

1) a detailed description of the movie/documentary film

2) fully detailed analysis and interpretation of the movie/documentary film (how accurate is the documentary film in depicting the subject according to the readings? Is the story told complete? Is the story convincing?)

3) evaluation of the documentary film (what messages did the movie/documentary film convey? How

was the message conveyed? How well are major parts connected to each other?

4) relating the movie/documentary film to these writings below:

Explaining Revolutions

State refers to “core administrative, policing and military organizations…coordinated by an executive authority that extract resources from and administer and rule… a territorial defined national society.

Regime refers to “the formal and informal organizations, relationships, and rules that determine who can employ state power for what ends as well as how those who are in power deal with those who are not

Bureaucratic State

Bureaucracy is staffed by merit-based appointments

Systematic enforcement of rules and regulations

Efficiency in service provision

Patrimonial State

Appointments are based on political loyalty, kinship, ethnicity

Ineffective and random enforcement of rules and regulations

Inefficiency in service provision

Inclusive/Liberal Regime

Popular participation in political process – election, political parties, civil society groups

Presence of civil and political liberties

Exclusive/Repressive Regime

Shutting-off possibility for political participation

Absence of civil and political liberties

Many factors influence revolution. Many analysts focus on one or two factors in explaining the occurrence of a revolution

Combination of regime type, type of state organization and state infrastructural power creates catalyst for probable revolution

State with exclusive political regime and patrimonial type of government institution and weak state infrastructural power is likely to experience revolution

No popular representation

Weak state capacity, limited resources, lack of enforcement of rule = social justice, inequality

Pushing and pulling factors

State with bureaucratic organization, inclusive political regime, and strong infrastructural power is less likely to experience revolution

Strong organizational capacity and resources result in better service delivery

Political representation means presence of social justice, equality

Formal mechanism for transfer of power

Socio-economic class is a second structure that could lead to revolution

Social classes “are clusters of people…who act together or against each other in the pursuit of particular interests”

Eric Wolf: peasant revolution followed the emergence of commercialization of agriculture and new social classes – intellectuals and workers

Absentee landlords engaged in excessive expropriation from farmers

Intellectuals – doctors, lawyers – see their social mobilization restricted

Workers are alienated from their labor

Modernization is a movement from traditional society to modern society

Imbalance between popular demands and a political system’s capacity to respond to these demands

Such imbalance generates alienation of farmers and middle class

Revolution depends on the extent of such alienation

International Flow of Ideas

Revolutionary leaders learned the concept of revolution and its potential in national development

Many revolutionary leaders saw the ability of communist revolution in economic development and industrialization

International Flow of Financial and Logistical Support

Revolutions during the Cold War supported by the Soviet Union

What is Inwegen’s conclusion about the causes of revolution?

He opts for a cluster of analysis that includes state, class, and international structures. This cluster creates necessary and sufficient conditions for successful revolution

Weak state: exclusive, patrimonial, and repressive

Class structure: parasitic and remote landed elites and alienated middle class

International system that is conducive to revolutionary movements – ideology and finance

How does Skocpol (in her “historical structural perspective”) define social revolutions?

“Rapid basic transformation of a society’s state and class structures; and they are accompanied and in part carried out through by class-based revolts from below” p.4